El Salvador flora is marked by tropical deciduous vegetation. The altitudinal variation in El Salvador's topography from sea level to above 2,700 meters has helped in the growth of mangrove forests, fresh water lagoons, swamp forests, tropical deciduous forests, alpine forests and cloud forests. Forests occupy approximately 17% of the total territory of El Salvador. Coffee plantations cover an additional 9% . Primeval forests cover only 3% of the area and national parks only 0.5% of El Salvador. El Salvador flora includes mahogany, cedar, walnut, mangrove, rubber, balsam, pine, oak and tropical fruit trees. Medicinal plants, and orchids add to the flora wealth of El Salvador. El Salvador fauna includes butterflies of over 1000 species, above 500 species of birds, around 200 species of mammals, and 800 species of sea fish. Of the 500 bird species 310 are bred within the country and the rest are migratory. Pacific parakeet, banded wren, fan-tailed warbler, long-tailed manakin, white-bellied chcachalaca, orange-chinned parakeet, bar winged oriole, Pacific screech owl, Bell's vireo, ash throated fly-catcher, blue bunting, thicket tinamou, scissor-tailed fly-catcher, elegant trogone and Beryline hummingbird are some of the bird species found in El Salvador. The mammals found in El Salvador include the jaguar, Baird's tapir, coyotes, varieties of monkeys and armadillos. Alligators, crocodiles, turtles, iguanas, boa constrictors are the reptile varieties found in El Salvador. El Salvador flora and fauna is protected in the national reserves in Barra de Santiago, El Jocotal Lagoon, El Imposible, Los Cobanos and Nancuchiname.